Monday, January 9, 2023

How to Brew Craft Beer in Canada

How to Brew Craft Beer in Canada

Introduction to Craft Beer Brewing

Craft beer brewing is an increasingly popular hobby in Canada that offers a wide array of rewards and challenges. Many homebrewers eventually become professional brewers themselves, and the craft beer industry in the country has soared in recent years.

The process involves combining specific ingredients such as hops, yeast, malt, water, and other additives to produce wort that is then fermented into ale or lager. The result is a unique and flavourful product that can be enjoyed on its own or with food.

Brewing your own craft beer can be a rewarding experience that takes knowledge of the different ingredients involved, how to mix them correctly, how to adjust the recipe for desired outcomes and flavours – as well as mastering sterilization and cleaning techniques, so that product quality retains its flavour. There are a variety of resources available online or in person through homebrew supply stores to help aspiring brewers achieve their goals. With knowledge comes power when it comes to producing a unique craft beer you can be proud of!

Understanding the Canadian Craft Beer Scene

The craft beer scene in Canada is quickly growing, with more and more restaurants, pubs and retailers offering a range of different styles of craft beer. To begin to understand the scene, it’s important to get familiar with some of the main varieties – lagers, ales, stouts/porters and wheat beers – as well as their different levels of intensity, colour, head retention and ABV (alcohol by volume).

Within the lager variety are pale lagers such as pilsner or pale ale styles. These tend to have a light hoppy taste that works well with lighter summer foods such as salads or grilled fish. Brown ales tend to have a nutty taste and full bodied flavour that goes great with hearty foods like sausages and steak. Stouts and porters are dark and highly hopped beers that pair best with rich savoury foods like steak or game dishes. Wheat beers have been historically brewed in Germany for centuries but now have seen resurgence in North America; they offer a bright, light body that pairs perfectly with lighter fare such as salads or seafood dishes.

It’s also important to come acquainted with the various brewing methods employed on Canadian craft breweries –

  • Open Fermentation and Closed Fermentation where stainless steel receptacles (casks) are used instead of wooden ones;
  • Dry Hopping which adds hops post fermentation;
  • Aged Beer in oak barrels giving it additional character while mellowing out some of its harsher tasting elements;
  • Kettle Sours which give it a tart lemon backbone;
  • Wild Beer made using ingredients like Brettanomyces yeast strains resembling those found naturally out in nature;
  • Cask Conditioned Beer where bottled products are allowed an additional fermentation process for added complexity etc.

All these processes contribute to the unique flavours found within each craft beer from Canada!

Selecting the Right Ingredients for Craft Beer Brewing

Brewing the perfect craft beer requires careful selection of ingredients, equipment and techniques. There are many different types of malts, hops and yeast available in Canada, each offering a unique flavour profile for your brew.

Malts provide colour, flavour and aroma to your beer. Base malts are best for pale ales and lagers. Popular Canadian wheat malts also impart a subtle sweetness and add to the character of your beer. Specialty malts offer interesting flavours such as caramel, roasted or chocolate notes. Hops add bitterness to balance out the sweetness of the malt but can also be used for aroma or flavouring in varying proportions. They come in different varieties such as Cluster, Willamette and Cascade, each bringing their own flavour profiles to your beer. Yeast is essential in fermentation process: selecting the right variety can impart fruity esters or characterful phenols that give you a distinctive flavour profile for your beer.

Making craft beer requires not only selecting appropriate ingredients but also understanding brewing processes such as mashing, lautering, boiling, cooling and fermenting. The key to excellence is patience – taking time with each step of the process is essential for properly balancing flavours and ensuring that every drop will be enjoyed at its fullest potential!

Preparing the Equipment and Supplies for Brewing

Before you begin to brew craft beer in Canada, it is important to make sure that you have the necessary equipment and supplies on hand. This will ensure a successful brewing process and a delicious product!


  • Brewing kettle: A large, stainless steel pot for boiling the wort (unfermented beer). The size of the pot depends on how much beer you are brewing.
  • Fermenter: A large, clean bucket or carboy made of food-grade materials that your beer will ferment in.
  • Airlock: This small device attaches to your fermenter and helps prevent oxidation while allowing carbon dioxide generated during fermentation to escape.
  • Bottling bucket: A large, plastic container which will be used for bottling your finished beer.
  • Siphon hose: Used for transferring beer from one container to another without oxygen contact.
  • Bottles or kegs: Depending on whether you would like to bottle or keg your beer, you will need either bottles or kegs. It is recommended to use bottles if you are a beginner brewer since they’re easier to work with. Plastic screw caps are suitable for bottling beer, but swing-top caps make filling easier since they don’t require capping equipment. Kegs require more advanced knowledge of brewing and packaging techniques but are suitable for more experienced brewers who want an easy storage solution for their finished product.


  • Grain Bigger grain means bigger bodies unless steps are taken in the mash stage of the brewing process that crank back intensity again so “bigger” no longer stays true; specialty grains help give depth colours etc. Specialty malts have been pre-prepared with extra roasting etc giving different colours as well as flavours great complexity from chocolate malt through roasted barely etc is available via these additions..
  • Hops Hops add bitterness aroma and flavour; where once there were simply alphas now varieties are described as intense aroma hops growing floral citrusy profile increasing complexity in the final brew without sacrificing bitterness necessary for balance; different bitterness metrics describe perceived levels better than earlier formats so selection can be done more scientifically than before.
  • Yeast Different kinds create different flavour profiles - use dry yeasts under 10%ABV plus ale yeasts if temperatures get too high (over 24 degrees Celsius/75F); belgian styles benefit most from certain strains while others used slightly differently give results many brewers never knew were possible!

The Brewing Process Step by Step

The brewing process can appear daunting at first but is actually a simple set of steps once broken down. To effectively craft beer in Canada, the brewer must first select a recipe. It is important to research the ingredients in depth and understand proper fermentation, bottling, and storage processes for each ingredient. For example, barley will require different amounts of time in the mash than wheat does. This can drastically affect the flavour profile of beer so must be considered carefully.

Once the recipe has been selected and researched, it's time to move on to the actual brewing process which involves five main steps: Mashing, Boiling, Fermenting, Conditioning/Maturing and Packaging. Each step has its own individual complexities which will help craft a unique flavour profile for any given beer.

  • Mashing – This is where grains are steeped in hot water to convert complex starches into simple sugars for yeast to later ferment into alcohol when boiling takes place:
    • Crush grain using malt mill
    • Combine grain with hot water then stir until temperatures reach peak levels indicated by recipe (Often around 66°C)
    • Allow mixture (called “mash”) to steep at a constant temperature for 60–90 minutes then cool mixture down gradually
    • Drain off sugar rich "wort" liquid while keeping crushed malt grains in lauter tun
  • Boiling – Wort is boiled combining hops with sugar rich liquid ensuring bittering agents are extracted:
    • Heat wort liquid to 100°C gradually over 45 minute period
    • Once at temperature drop specific amounts of hops (determined by previous research) into utensil and simmer additional 15–60 minutes depending on desired bitterness
    • After specified time remove wort from heat source
  • Fermenting – Wort from boiling step is now ready for yeast transformation—fermentation:
    • Move wort into Sealable plastic vessel/container or wooden barrel tank as indicated by recipe used prior
    • Add specified type of yeast which will convert sugars into alcohol
    • Seal Fermentation container or tank and store away from direct sunlight or extreme temperatures
    • Check specific gravity readings during brewing process—record readings
  • Conditioning/Maturing – Alcohol flavoured liquids are now ready for maturing stage if needed:
    • Transfer brewed Beer from fermentation vessel or tanks depending on volume needed
    • Allow Brewed Beer to sit/mature as outlined by specifically designed ageing period
  • Packaging – The Batch is now ready and needs packaging up before consumption:
    • Sanitize all bottles either through sterilization techniques provided by Brewers Guild guidelines or chemical sterilization techniques
    • Fill Bottles up with fresh Batch through use of bottling equipment such as improved bottle filler
    • Have caps ready beforehand; fit them onto individual bottles while still warm
    • Place bottles away from direct sunlight or extreme temperatures until Beer has bottled conditioned
    • Enjoy!

Fermentation and Maturation of Craft Beer

Creating beer is as much an art form as a science, and an essential part of the craft brewing process is fermentation and maturation. This is when yeast converts the ingredients into beer, followed by a process of storing, aging and treating to create different styles and flavours.

During fermentation, the yeast consumes the sugars from grain malts that were mashed with hot water during the production process. The yeast will then produce alcohol, carbon dioxide and flavourings in its own unique style that adds notes such as bitterness, fruitiness or nuttiness into the finished beer.

Maturation comes after fermentation and is a careful process of storing the beer in specific tanks or bottles to slowly reduce any remaining sugar content while developing its unique character. In some cases coffee or other inoculants may be added to bring out additional flavours. Once fermentation has been completed and maturation has taken place brewers will send their beers to taprooms or their own retail stores where they can be sampled by customers before being packaged for sale in bottles or cans. Finally – cheers!

Packaging and Serving Craft Beer

Once craft beer has been brewed, it is ready for packaging and serving. There are a variety of packaging options available to craft brewers from cans to bottles, kegs and more. Craft brewers may also package beer in growlers (sealed containers) for sale. Many governments strict regulations around the packaging and traditional labelling processes, but regulations are becoming more flexible in many jurisdictions to accommodate the growing craft beer sector.

Once packaged, most craft beers will be served within an establishment or at specialized events or festivals, depending on the local regulations. Serving temperatures can vary significantly between styles – lagers being served colder than ales – so it’s important to check with the local authorities regarding guidelines before dispensing your beer. Serve with appropriate garnishes or pairings to ensure an even better experience for customers. Appropriate glassware needs to be used according to style and should be well-cleaned prior to each use. Finally, if you choose to have your craft beer in bottles or cans, you need to make sure that certain government regulations are met regarding safety and other criteria.

Tips for Homebrewers in Canada

Brewing craft beer at home is increasingly becoming a popular hobby in Canada and around the world. Home brewing offers an opportunity to create a unique beverage that reflects your personal tastes. Whether you're an experienced brewer or a novice, these tips will help ensure your craft beer is top-notch!

When Brewing in Canada, whether you’re located in Ontario, Quebec, British Columbia, or anywhere else in the Great White North, there are certain factors to consider before you get started with home brewing. It’s important to familiarize yourself with the Canadian laws on alcohol production when you begin homebrewing. To start out, follow the guidelines listed by Health Canada for retail/private sale of fermented products. Additionally, observe local regulations and remember that bottle size restrictions may vary depending on where you live.

Selecting Ingredients: The type of malt and hops used play a major role in achieving the desired flavour profile of your homebrewed beer. Use high-quality ingredients whenever possible and always keep an eye out for innovative new products from local breweries or online retailers. Similarly, be aware of any ingredient availability issues that may exist during different seasons of the year (e.g., lack of wet hops). You may also choose to explore complementary ingredients such as fruit juices, tea blends and spices for extra complexity— just make sure to adjust quantities accordingly!

Brewing Techniques: Proper technique can take some practice; enlist help from experienced brewers if needed! Be sure to measure gravity levels before fermentation begins so as not to overshoot your ABV goals post-process (alcohol by volume). Also keep an eye on temperature control between mash step 1 and 2— shooting for a range between 154°F (68°C) - 158°F (70°C) generally yields best results when making craft beers at home. Finally: don't forget about sanitation! Keeping all tools and equipment squeaky clean helps avoid unwanted bacteria or off flavours later down the line during consumption time!